The rectum is the last section of the large intestine leading to the anus. Cancer in large intestine and rectum are lot similar but treatments methods are different.
Common symptoms of colon and rectal cancer include:
Causes of rectal cancer
Rectal cancer occurs normal cells develop genetic mutation and starts growing rapidly and get accumulated forming tumors in the area. The cancer cells grow to invade and destroy surrounding normal tissue and travels to other parts of the body. Family history and inherited gene mutations increase the risk of colon and rectal cancer
The doctor conducts various tests to diagnose colon and rectal cancer and includes colonoscopy in which a thin, flexible, lighted tube with a video camera attached to its tip is inserted to view the stage and spread of cancer inside the colon and rectum. Few blood tests and imaging studies are performed for staging rectal cancer and includes complete blood count test, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) test, Chemistry panel test, CT (computed tomography) scan and MRI (magnetic resonance imaging).
Rectal cancer stages
Stage 0: Cancer cells on the surface of the rectal lining
Stage I. Tumor extending below the rectal mucosa
Stage II. Tumor extending into or through the rectal wall
Stage III. Tumor invading lymph nodes next to the rectum
Stage IV. Tumor spread to a distant organ or lymph nodes from the rectum
Rectal cancer treatment is performed through multimodal therapy which involves more than one treatment method at a time and the treatment options include:
Surgery: Surgery is performed to remove the tumor from the colon and rectum and this depends on the various factors including:
Surgery procedures include:
Chemotherapy: chemotherapy involves using high dose strong chemicals to kill cancer cells. Chemotherapy is performed alone or in combination with radiation therapy, before or after surgery.
Radiation therapy: Radiation therapy involves emitting high-powered beams to kill cancer cells.
Combination therapy: for advanced stages of rectum cancer combination of chemotherapy and radiation is performed. Advantages of chemoradiotherapy include:
Palliative care: Palliative care is specialized medical care provided for cancer patients to relief from pain and other symptoms of the disease and aims to improve the quality of life for the patients.
At Kims hospital we provide latest and effective large intestine and rectal cancer treatments from well qualified and experienced specialist’s and doctors with care and compassion. To know more about large intestine and rectal cancer treatments and treatment cost, book an appointment now.